Mars is the fourth planet of the sun and the second smallest planet in the solar system after Mercury. In English, Mars bears the name of the god of the Roman War, often referred to as the Red Planet, because the reddish iron oxide diffused on its surface gives it a reddish look that characterizes the visible objects of the naked eye.
Mars has an atmosphere, but is 100 times thinner than Earth’s atmosphere and has very little oxygen. The atmosphere on Mars consists mainly of carbon dioxide. An astronaut on Mars will not be able to breathe Mars air and will need a space suit with oxygen to work outdoors.
|Equatorial Diameter:||6,792 km|
|Mass:||6.42 x 10^23 kg (10.7% Earth)|
|Polar Diameter:||6,752 km|
|Moons:||2 (Phobos & Deimos)|
|Orbit Period:||687 days (1.9 years)|
|Orbit Distance:||227,943,824 km (1.52 AU)|
|Surface Temperature:||-153 to 20 °C|
|Recorded By:||Egyptian astronomers|
|First Record:||2nd millennium BC|
Mars and Earth have almost the same mass.
Although Mars has only 15% of the Earth’s size and just over 10% of the Earth’s mass, only two-thirds of the Earth’s surface is covered with water. The gravity of the surface of Mars is only 37% of the earth (which means it can jump nearly three times on Mars).
Only 18 missions to Mars were successful.
As of September 2014, there were 40 missions to Mars, including orbits, landing and spacecraft but not counting the flight. The most recent arrivals include the Mars Curiosity mission in 2012, the mission of MAVEN, which arrived on 22 September 2014, followed by the Indian Space Research Organization’s(ISRO) MOM Mangalyaan spacecraft, which arrived on 24 September 2014. The following missions will be the arrival of the European Space Agency (ESA) Which includes an orbital vehicle, a landing craft and a vehicle, followed by NASA’s robotic landing mission, scheduled for launch in March 2016 and a planned arrival in September 2016.
Mars is home to the longest mountain in the solar system.
Olympus Mons, a shield volcano, has a height of 21 km and a diameter of 600 km. Although they have formed over billions of years, the evidence of lava flows is so recent that many scientists believe they can remain active.
Mars has the largest dust storms in the solar system.
Can last for months and cover the entire planet. The seasons are extreme because their elliptical orbit (elliptical orbit) around the sun is more elongated than most other planets in the solar system.
On the surface of Mars, the sun appears about half its size on Earth.
At the nearest point to the sun, the southern hemisphere tends towards the sun, causing a hot summer, while the northern hemisphere bears a short, dry winter. At its maximum point of the sun, the northern hemisphere tends towards the sun, causing a long summer Moderate, while the southern hemisphere bears the long cold winter.
Parts of Mars fell to the Earth.
Scientists have found small traces of the Martian atmosphere inside meteorites that have been violently expelled from Mars, and then orbit the solar system amid the debris of the galaxy for millions of years, before landing on Earth. This allowed scientists to begin studying Mars before launching space missions.
Mars releases its name from the god of the Roman War.
The ancient Greeks launched on the planet Ares, after the god of war; likewise did the Romans, where they linked the color of the planet in red with Mars, their god of war. Interestingly, some other ancient cultures also focused on colors – for astronomers in China, they were a “fire star”, while Egyptian priests called “disherha” or “red.” The red color of Mars is due to rocks and dust that cover its iron-rich surface.
There are signs of liquid water on Mars.
For years it was known that Mars had water in the form of ice. The first signs of raster water are dark lines or patches on the wall of the pond nozzles and slopes seen in satellite images. Because of the Martian atmosphere, this water must be saline to prevent it from freezing or evaporation.
One day Mars will have a ring.
In the next 20-40 million years, Phobos’s largest moon-Mars will be fragmented by gravitational forces that lead to the creation of a loop that can last up to 100 million years.
Life of Mars:
Although there are some harsh living organisms that live in hostile conditions on Earth, including simulations that approximate Mars, plants and animals can generally survive in the surrounding conditions on Mars. The surface gravity of Mars is 38% of the Earth.